There are three types of electric vehicles in India.
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV).
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV).
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV).
These vehicles are different from each other, as they utilize electricity in different forms. Types of Electric Vehicles in India are classified into three types BEVs Battery Electric Vehicle, PHEVs Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, and HEVs Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
First of all, we talk about the Battery Electric Vehicle(BEV).
B stands for Battery
EV stands for Electric Vehicle.
This type of vehicle generates power from the battery pack only. BEV’s only uses battery packs to generate propulsion. There is no Internal Combustion Engine present for the propulsion of the car.
This type of car has a battery pack of rechargeable batteries. These batteries can be charged through AC or DC chargers. We should use BEVs as they do not emit any harmful emissions as compared to gasoline vehicles causing various hazards.
BEVs battery pack is charged through electricity using external resources. These are considered as pure electric vehicles as there is no ICE is present in these vehicles.
Most cars use a lithium-ion battery as their battery pack. The lithium-ion battery pack is used mostly because these batteries provide a good range.
Now after this all Electric Vehicle or Battery Electric Vehicle, the second type of electric Vehicle is Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(PHEV).
P stands for “Plug-in” which means you can plug in your car for charging the battery.
H stands for “Hybrid” which means that a car has both battery and petrol or diesel engine.
The plug-in hybrid electric car can go around 48 km on battery. After that, it shifts on petrol or diesel engine for propulsion. These cars were usually good for those who have a short drive daily. As these cars go around 48 km on battery and don’t emit hazardous gases. After that, it will be taken over by the petrol/diesel engine.
For short drives, this car is more about an EV but for long drives, these cars emit hazardous gases as gasoline engines take over batteries for further propulsion.
Now the last type of electric vehicle is Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
These vehicles have both batteries as well as the Internal Combustion Engine. But most of the time this vehicle runs on petrol or diesel engine, the battery comes in the role while the car is moving at low speed. Batteries in HEV is used to improve the performance of a car.
The battery itself charges partly via ‘regenerative braking’. When you press the brake pedal, it makes the electric motor go in reverse and act as a generator. As a generator, the electric motor can charge the battery.
The above three types of Electric Vehicles in India are present in the automobile sector.
Challenges in EV:
Electric Vehicles are on development mode right now. TATA motors are the only company that has a range of EVs in India. TATA Tigor, Tiago, Nexon, and Altroz are available in both electric as well as petrol/diesel variant. After this Mahindra has E-Verito and e2o plus. And in higher segment MG ZS EV and Hyundai Kona are available. There is still a requirement of more Electric Vehicles range. In the year 2020-2021, there are many EVs are going to be launched.
After this, the next issue which arises is the cost anxiety of EVs. EVs are usually costly than ICE vehicles. Because of there battery packs of Lithium-ion which is used to generate power in EV.
Charging Infrastructure is the third biggest issue after cost anxiety and a range of Electric Vehicles. In India, Charging Infrastructures are not yet fully developed. According to FAME 2, there are around 2700 charging stations that are going to be placed. Also, many private organizations are making and placing charging infrastructure.
When these issues get resolve than electric vehicles replace the conventional vehicles in India.