People are afraid of disrupting their journey when they wait a long time to recharge their car, or are looking for fast charging stations near them when the EV’s battery charge is low, which is why people are opting for electric Switching on the vehicle can be prevented.
Sometimes when the drive finds an electric vehicle charging station but discover that this charging station does not support your particular car charging port. To encourage people to adopt EVs, it is important that there should be enough electric vehicle charging stations. This also important electric vehicle charging station runs perfectly, and recharges EVs with a variety of charging ports.
Fleely is doing amazing in Fast Electric Vehicle charging station in Jaipur. 10 Plus fast Charging Stations have been deployed at various places like National Highway, Near Hotel, Near Petrol Pump, Congested Area and many more places.
Fleely enables its users to plug their vehicle into any charging station, regardless of their vehicle type and design, charging station type and design, and charge point operator (CPO).
Fleely addresses the interoperability requirement of all EV charging infrastructure.
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What is Electric Vehicle Charging station?
Electric Vehicle Charging Station is recharging your electric vehicle battery which is integrated inside the electric vehicle. Charging station is equipment which connects our electric vehicle from the electricity power to charge your EV battery. Some charging station like Fleely have advance feature such as smart metering, network connectivity and cellular capability.
Another way we can call Electric Vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to EV charging station.
An electric charging station or wall charger is really just a device who ensures that electricity flows safely through an EV. EVSE is providing communication between electric vehicles and charging station.
EVSE have a secure lock-out feature that can’t allow current to flow from the charging machine until gun is plug physically into the car battery charge socket.
Many government specs like ARAI and Bharat encourage using EVSE’s charging station to safely charge EV instead of normal 15 Amp 240 V socket.
Also the current delivered to the vehicle is less than the limit of EVSE, and also less than the limit that the car receives.
For Example, Mahindra e20 charges at 2kw power, if the EVSE is capable of charging more than 2kw, but the car charges at 2kw. A high-tech car like a Nissan Leaf or a Tesla Model S charges 22w. Hence, it enables the AC to charge at a faster rate.
EVSE have some additional features.
- Software Application for virtual monitoring
- Integrated Payment Gateways
So essentially an EVSE is a box mounted on the wall, which supplies electric energy flow to the onboard charger for recharging the electric vehicle battery.
How Electric Vehicle Charging Station Charge Fast?
AC (Alternative) Charging
Simplest form AC charging uses on–board charger to convert electricity from AC (Alternative Current) power from the conventional AC grid to Direct Current (DC) power to charge the traction battery pack.
Car have a standardize vehicle Inlet and a charging cable is used to connect or to the infrastructure socket of the AC charging station. In some cases cable is permanently connected to the charging station as well similar to a petrol pump.
For a safe and reliable charging process there should be several essential components in an AC charging station. Let’s look at it by following the power flow from the charger to the electric vehicle when the charging station and the EV first connected.
The charge controller in the station communicates to the EV, in this communication information regarding the connectivity, fault condition; current limits are exchanged between the charger and the EV.
Safety Interlocks are used to ensure a safe charging process and to stop the charging in the event of a fault condition or an improper connection between the EV and the charger.
When the AC power is provided to the EV, the onboard charger has a rectifier that converts the AC power to the DC power then the power control units appropriately adjust the voltage and current of the DC converter to control the charging power delivered to the battery.
Battery Management System
The power control unit in turn gets inputs from the battery management system or the BMS for controlling the battery charging. The battery management system monitors the key battery operation parameters like voltage, current or temperature. It then provides inputs to the power control unit to control the charging power delivered by the DC to DC converters. Apart from that there’s a protection circuit inside the onboard charger, the BMS triggers the protection circuit if the battery’s operating limits like the voltage or the current are exceeded thereby isolating the battery EV if needed for its safe operation.
AC Charging Types:
Let us now look at the four AC main types of AC charging connectors which are used around the world.
- Type 1 (US/Japan SAE)
- Type 2 (Europe Mennekes/Tesla)
- Type 3 EV plug Alliance
- Tesla US
For example in the United State of America, power is supplied using a 120 volt 60 hertz single-phase AC or a 240 volts and 60 hertz dual phase AC, on the other hand in Europe 230 volts 50 hertz single-phase AC or 400 volts 50 hertz three-phase AC is used. Due to these differences in both voltage, number of faces and frequency, it leads to differences in chargers between the two regions.
Generally an AC connector has two or more larger pins to transmit power and few smaller pins for the sake of communication. There are four types of AC connectors which are used worldwide.
- Namely the Type1 connector which is mostly used in USA and Japan.
- The Type 2 connector which mostly used in Europe including those of Tesla cars
- The Type 3 connector is used Europe but is increasingly Phased out by the Type 2 connector
- Finally the proprietary connector used by Tesla for its car in the USA
How we calculate AC Charging Power
The EV industry has unfortunately not agreed on one specific connector, so depending on the car brand and the country the connector varies in shape, size, and pin configuration. One of the main reasons is the difference in AC voltage and frequency around the world.
This is quite simple; the calculation of the single-phase AC charging power is a product of the single-phase AC voltage V Ac and the grid current I AC.
The Three-Phase Ac charging power is calculated as the root three times the product of the line-to-line three-phase AC voltage V 3AC and the grid current IAC. For the AC power calculations as important that the root means square or the RMS value of the voltage and the current are used.
Also we should keep in mind that not all the thing charging power is actually delivered to the traction battery; this is due to losses in the charging system. Typically onboard chargers have an efficiency of ninety to ninety-five percent and the rest of it is lost, due to losses and the conversion.
Single Phase Pch = V ac I ac
Three Phase Pch= √3(v3acIac)
Charging Power , Pch
Single phase AC Voltage, Vac
Three phase AC voltage, Vac
Three phase line-to-line AC voltage, V3ac
Grid Current, Iac
DC Fast chargers typically operates at level three charging powers and are designed to charge electric vehicles quickly with an electric output ranging between 50 Kwh to 350 Kwh with higher power operation the AC to DC converters, the DC to DC converters and the power control circuits become larger and more expensive.
This is why DC fast charger implemented as all forced chargers rather than bought chargers, so that it doesn’t take up space within the vehicle and the fast charger can be shared by many users.
Let us analyze how DC Charger supplies current to electric vehicle to recharge it.
In the first step the alternating current or AC powers provided by the AC grid is first converter into direct current or DC power using rectifier inside the DC charging station then the power control unit appropriately adjusts the voltage and current of a DC converters to control the variable DC power delivered to charge the battery.
There are a safety interlocks and protection circuits used to de-energize the EV connectors and to stop the charging process whenever there’s a fault condition or an improper connection between the EV and the charger.
The battery management system or BMS plays the key role of communicating between the charging stations and to control the voltage and current deliver to the battery and to operate the protection circuit in case of an unsafe situation. For example control area Network shortly refer to a scan or power line communication shortly refer to as PLC are used for communication between the EV and the charger
Types of DC Charging
Now look at the main DC chargers connector types. There are 5 types of DC charging connectors used globally.
- CCS US
- CCS Europe
- Tesla US/ EU
- China GB/T standard
CCS stands for Combining Charging System called the combo one connector which is mainly used in US, Europe, India.
The Chademo connectors used globally for cars built by Japanese manufactured. Predominantly fourth Tesla DC connectors which are used for AC charging as well and finally China has their own DC connector based on the Chinese GBT standard.